Fish stocks are dropping rapidly in number and diversity. Scientists believe the number of large fish in the oceans has fallen by 90 per cent since the 1950s. Even species at the bottom of the sea are at risk. Establishing and enforcing fishing bans in deep-sea reserves holds promise for countering this process. Marine biologists have been campaigning for marine reserves for decades, yet when they were first suggested the reaction from fishermen ranged from suspicion to disapproval. Now, more and more fishermen are convinced that reserves will help maintain their livelihoods. The case of the Village of Andavadoaka, in remote southwest Madagascar, illustrates how these new practices can be successfully adopted by a fisher community.